went online, I could not help but remind myself of a different kind
of publication that began 173 years ago: Nauvoo’s Times
There is no great similarity between the two, except that both are
concerned with the faith of the Saints.
motto for Nauvoo
“True to the Faith,” suggests the expectation that all
its columns will be compatible with Church teachings. The Times
motto, “Truth Will Prevail,” reflected the desire of the
publisher to present the history and teachings of the Church in as
true a light as possible.
is of special interest to historians. It ran from November 1839 to
February 15, 1846, covering practically the entire span of Mormon
history in Nauvoo. Its pages provide valuable insight not only into
Church history but also into Church doctrine as it was taught in that
day. Its story is worth remembering.1
a sense, the story of the Times
began in the spring of 1839, when Ebenezer Robinson and Don Carlos
Smith (the Prophet’s youngest brother) unearthed a printing
press and some type at Far West, Missouri. The press had been used to
publish the Elders’
and was buried in order to keep it from being destroyed as the
Mormons were driven from the state.
digging it up, Robinson and Smith carted it all the way across the
northern Missouri prairie to Commerce, soon to be renamed Nauvoo.2
There they set up a printing shop in the basement of an old warehouse
and this became the first home of the new publication. Since both men
had previous publishing experience, they were asked by Church leaders
to publish a new newspaper, and promised all the profits if they
would undertake it.
the new venture presented several problems. One was simply cleaning
the press and type and getting everything in working order. Another
was the need for money to buy more type, paper, and other things
needed to start publishing. Since neither of the partners had
sufficient funds to provide for their families, let alone to begin
publishing, they had to go into debt even to get a start.
an effort to raise funds through early subscriptions, Robinson and
Smith issued a prospectus in July 1839. It promised “all
general information respecting the Church,” a history of the
unparalleled persecution the Mormon people received in Missouri, and
letters from the traveling elders as well as other people of
interest. It also promised that the paper would do nothing to
“calculate strife” but, rather, promote only the
principles that would “make men happy in this world, and secure
unto them eternal life.”
started out as a monthly publication but, beginning with Volume 2
(November 1, 1840), it appeared twice monthly until it ceased
publication. There were a total of 131 issues, with only four gaps:
November 15, December 1, and December 15, 1843, and June 15, 1844. At
first the price was one dollar per year, but when it began to appear
twice monthly it went up to two dollars.
new paper was thought of not just as a local publication but, rather,
as a voice for the whole Church that would go to members everywhere
in the country. Its content was basically religious in nature, though
at times it printed interesting information of other types as well as
articles picked up from other papers around the country.
more secular paper, The
began publication in April 1842. After a year its name was changed to
It was edited first by William Smith (another of Joseph’s
brothers) then, beginning in December, by John Taylor. It was
published weekly on the same press as the Times
Not intended as competition, its pages were devoted to general news
of all sorts. It also became a strong political voice. It continued
publication until October 29, 1845.3
editors planned to begin publishing the Times
almost immediately after their July 1839 prospectus went out.
However, just as they had the type set and were ready to print, both
of them came down with what they called the “chill fever”
(actually, malaria), thus delaying the publication. It did not begin
for another four months.
subscriptions for the paper started coming in, which helped provide a
living for the two editors and also allowed them to build a small
frame building. The lower room became the printing office and the
small upper room became the home of Ebenezer Robinson and his family.
The printing office of Times and Seasons.
they moved in, however, Ebenezer and his wife were so ill that they
could hardly speak. In fact, they had to be moved while in their
beds. To add to their problems, before the editors could return to
work the damp dirt floor of the basement storage room had caused much
of their paper supply to mildew.
first number of the Times
issued in November 1839 (no specific date on the masthead), set a
pattern for future issues. It began with a fervent “address”
by the editors in which they spelled out what they intended to do
with their newspaper.
A replica of the first issue of Times and Seasons.
it would be a “source of light and instruction” to those
who read it for it would lay before them “the great plan of
salvation which was devised in heaven from before the foundation of
the world.” They would dwell at considerable length “upon
the fullness of the everlasting gospel of Jesus Christ...; the
necessity of embracing it with full purpose of heart, and living by
all its precepts." They also planned to deal with the gathering
of Israel in preparation for the time “when Christ will reign
with his saints upon earth, a thousand years, according to the
testimony of all the holy prophets since the world began.”
they announced that they would provide a detailed history of the
persecution and suffering the Saints endured in Missouri and
elsewhere. They noted, however, that a “mere synopsis... would
swell this address to volumes; therefore we are compelled to let it
pass for the present, by touching upon a few of its most prominent
features.” They then provided a brief rehearsal of the Missouri
persecutions, anticipating that an extensive treatment would be
half of the first issue was taken up by an extract from the “private
journal of Joseph Smith,” detailing some of the persecution he
and others experienced in Missouri. The continuation of Joseph
Smith’s history later became a regular feature of the Times
and was eventually the basis for the Church’s publication of
Joseph Smith’s six-volume History.
Then came a long letter from Benjamin Winchester, recounting his
missionary experiences in some of the eastern states.
issue also contained what amounted to a plea for understanding by
those who had not received all their paid-for issues of the Elders’
Apparently some subscribers felt that since they did not receive all
the issues they had subscribed for, they should receive a few free
issues of the Times
The editor’s made an impassioned plea for some reasonable
understanding. The way they worded it should have been enough to help
anyone understand their plight:
this idea we are confident they will abandon, when they learn the
fact, that the proprietors of the Journal, while conducting that
paper, sustained the loss of an entire establishment in Kirtland
Ohio, in Jan. 1838, after which, with much difficulty, they procured
another press and resuscitated the paper at Far West Mo. where they
had the opportunity of publishing two numbers only; when persecution
raged to that extent, that they were compelled to leave the State,
with the loss of nearly all their property. Thus, while many of you
have sustained the loss of but 67 cents, they have not only lost all
their property, but have been driven by their cruel and hard-hearted
persecutors, from their peaceful and happy homes, and are now
strangers, sojourning in a strange land....
the same “address” the editors explained that they must
receive payment for subscriptions in advance, “as our expenses
are, necessarily, very heavy, and nothing but cash in hand will
first issue of the Times
also included a long “Greeting” to all Saints everywhere,
signed by six members of the Quorum of the Twelve: Brigham Young,
Heber C. Kimball, John E. Page, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and
George A. Smith.
was especially interesting, at least to me, for at the time it was
published the apostles (except for John E. Page) were making their
way to England, where the Quorum would conduct one of the most
significant missions in Church history. They obviously prepared the
“Greeting” before they left, anticipating the July
publication of the paper. It consisted of a general exhortation to
faithfulness in the face of difficulties as well as behavioral advice
to missionaries. Sadly, while the apostles were gone, the September
carried a notice of the July 17 death of Wilford Woodruff’s
youngest child, Sarah Emma.
the apostles’ greeting was followed by extracts from the
minutes of a conference held on March 17, 1839, a note from the
editors, and a reprint of the prospectus that had been circulated in
handbill form earlier.
editorship of the Times
changed over the years. It remained in the hands of Robinson and
Smith until they decided to divide the business, Don Carlos Smith
assuming control of the paper and handbill business and Ebenzer
Robinson taking over the book and fancy job printing, the
bookbindery, and the stereotype foundry. In December 1840, therefore,
the firm of Robinson and Smith, Publishers, was dissolved and Smith
became the sole proprietor.
the spring of 1841, he took on a partner, Robert B. Thompson.
However, after the untimely death of Smith on August 7 and Thompson
only 20 days later, Ebenezer Robinson again took over as editor and
associate was Gustavas Hills, a prominent citizen of Nauvoo and a
music professor in the University of Nauvoo. However, for some reason
members of the Quorum of the Twelve were not fully satisfied with the
way Hills was handling the editorial department. On November 20, the
Prophet met with six of them and discussed the matter.
days later the Quorum, wanting the Church to have more editorial
control, voted to ask Robinson to step down from his editorship and
give it to Elder Willard Richards. If Robinson did not acquiesce,
Richards was to obtain a press and type and publish the paper as a
Church publication. Robinson was reluctant, but finally sold the
paper to the Church, completing the sale on February 4, 1842. His
last issue was dated February 1, 1842.
enough, on January 28, Joseph Smith reportedly received a revelation
in which he was instructed to “say unto the Twelve, that it is
my will to have them take in hand the editorial department of the
according to that manifestation which shall be given unto them by the
power of my Holy Spirit.” It was Joseph Smith who actually took
over, however, being listed as editor in all the rest of the issues
of Volume 3 (8 through 24), ending with the issue dated October 15,
1842. He chose John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff of the Quorum of the
Twelve as assistant editors.
trustee-in trust for the Church, Joseph soon sold the printing
business to John Taylor, and when Joseph stepped down as editor,
Elder Taylor took over. He edited the paper until its final issue on
February 15, 1846.
before the end of 1840, the printing shop was moved into a more
commodious brick building on the corner of Bain and Water Streets,
just two blocks west of Joseph Smith’s home. There the
publication of the paper remained until it was moved to its final
location two blocks east and north to a building on Kimball and Main
continued to carry Joseph Smith’s history, several installments
of a history of the Church by Oliver Cowdery, communication from
missionaries, a few notes on current world events as well as world
history, conference reports, doctrinal expositions, notices of trials
and excommunications, marriage notices, and death notices. Each issue
from December 1839 to October 1840 also carried an installment of the
history of the Missouri persecutions.
looking at marriage notices (which did not appear very often), some
will be interested to note that the column is not headed by words
such as “marriages” or “weddings” but,
rather, by the word “hymenial.” This is a curious word to
most of us today, with several possible meanings, but in its archaic
origin (sometimes spelled “hymeneal”) it referred to
weddings. Sometimes it implied some kind of wish for or special
message to the newlyweds. Within this framework a few of the
hymenials in the Times
are interesting, and even humorous.
hymenial column on January 15, 1841, for example, seemed to be not
only a wish for happiness to the newlyweds but also a plea for
support of the paper—or, at least, some payment for the
announcement. Heading the column was the phrase “The silken
cord that binds two hearts.” But then, after listing the
forthcoming marriage the editors wrote: “We wish the above
pair, a happy sail down the current of life, and should their little
bark strike a rock, may it put them in mind of the printer's FEE.”
another listing the editors wrote: “We wish you well in well
doing, and just as well if the printer had been remembered.” On
January 15, 1842, several weddings were announced. After the last
announcement the editors wrote: “With the above we acknowledge
the receipt of a loaf of excellent cake, such as we are fond of—may
the happy pair see many good days.” Apparently that couple
provided at least some reward to the editor for announcing their
with issue number 2, in December 1839, the Times
also carried poetry and hymns, most frequently poems by Eliza R.
Snow. Eliza was perhaps the Church’s most prolific poet of the
nineteenth century, and the paper published fifty of her poems.
seemed to be able to write poems celebrating or lamenting almost any
occasion. The first one in the Times
“Slaughter on Shoal Creek, Caldwell County Missouri”
bitterly decried the infamous Haun’s Creek Massacre where
seventeen Mormons and one sympathizer were killed and fourteen people
were wounded. Although the tone and topics of her poems varied, this
one was typical of the harsh words she could throw at those who
persecuted the Church as well as the colorful way she often expressed
sympathy for the persecuted. To quote just a few lines:
‘Twas not enough for that unfeeling crew
To murder men; they shot them through and through!
Frantic with rage; they pour’d their moulten lead
Profusely on the dying and the dead;
For mercy’s claim, which heav’n delights to hear
Fell disregarded on rentless ears;
Long o’er the scene, of that unhappy eve,
Will the lone widow—and the orphan grieve;
Their savage foes, with greedy av’rice fir’d,
Plunder’d their murder’d victims, and retir’d
poetry and other writings of Elder Parley P. Pratt also appeared
frequently in the pages of the Times
The first of his poems to be published there was in the February 1840
issue. True to what the editors wanted to keep on the minds of their
readers, this poem was titled “Zion in Captivity: A Lamentation
by P. P. Pratt, While Chained in Prison.” It was written while
Elder Pratt was in the Liberty Missouri jail and lamented not just
his imprisonment but also the desolation the Saints left behind as
they were driven from Missouri. It also called upon God for
vengeance. To quote the first few lines:
How long, O Lord! will thou forsake
The saints, who tremble at thy word?
O arm of God, awake!
And teach the nations thou art God.
Descend with all thy holy throng,
The year of thy redeemed bring near,
Haste, haste, the day of vengeance on,
Bid Zion's children dry their tears.
kind of sentiment would have been eaten up by the beleaguered exiles
interesting new feature in Volume 2 was advertising. The first ad in
that issue was for The Book of Mormon, which could be purchased
wholesale for $1.00 per copy, retail for $1.25, or $1.50 for a book
with extra binding for the convenience of traveling elders.
interesting, however, were all the other ads, for they touted various
patent medicines of the day, each said to miraculously cure a host of
ailments: Gridley’s Salt Rheum Ointment guaranteed to cure salt
rheum (and inflammatory skin disease, like eczema), tetter (a similar
disease), Michigan or prairie itch, Illinois mange, scald head (a
scalp disease similar to ringworm, scrofula (a glandular swelling),
ringworm, “obstinate old sores, of long standing,” and
almost every other cutaneous disease; Bliss Purgative Bilious Pills,
for all stomach disorders; Bliss’ Imperial Syrup, claimed to be
“the safest and most efficacious remedy... that has ever been
offered” for diarrhea and most other bowel infections; and Dr.
Vancouver’s Powders, for the immediate cure of fever and the
ague. All were available at establishment of Robinson and Smith (i.
e., the printing office).
financial well-being of the Times
was, unfortunately, sometimes in question. From the beginning the
editors sought more subscriptions but also pleaded with their agents
around the country to actually send in the money they had collected.
Apparently some agents not only held back on the subscription money
but even used it for their own needs — intending, no doubt, to
pay it back.
February 1840, the Nauvoo stake presidency and high council placed a
long communication in the paper in which they publicly expressed
their “entire disapprobation” of any agent who thus
withheld funds. Pointing to the general feeling of Church leaders
concerning the roll of the paper they wrote: “The high council
lament their poverty, in not being able, as agents for the church, to
sustain the press, with funds necessary to effect a work so
interesting and needful. One so much desired, and looked for, by our
friends in the East, who, no doubt, desire to be often informed
concerning the situation of us in the West; particularly since the
Missouri outrage was committed on us.” They called upon the
delinquent agents to send the monies forthwith or the council would
“discountenance any, and all such acts, and offending persons.”
this appeal did not have the desired immediate effect, for three
months later the editors referred to it and complained that the
offending agents had not responded. This was followed by a threat.
Unless the money was forthcoming soon the editors would be under the
necessity of publishing their names in the paper as well as
withholding any papers they had ordered. It is not clear how many, if
any, paid up.
adding to the paper’s financial problems was the fact that
letters too often came postage unpaid. In the future, the editors
announced in the July 1840 issue, they would pay no attention to any
letter unless the postage were paid. A clever explanation followed:
“Our subscription for one year is one dollar in advance: a
letter comes requesting the paper for one year, containing $1;
Postage 25 cents, in the course of three months the second letter
makes its appearance, requesting the paper to be directed to another
Post Office: Postage 25 cents. After a short time a paper gets
miscarried and one number is missing; the subscriber anxious to keep
the volume complete, sends the third letter requesting the last No.
Postage 25 cents. The fourth letter comes lumbering along in a few
days requesting the paper to be stopped at the office as he is about
to move into the place: Postage 25 cents. The next letter that comes
has a silver dollar, to pay for the paper one year; excess of Postage
75 cents. How do you think printers can live?”
the years, the Times
reflected much of the history of Nauvoo. The inaugural address of
Mayor John C. Bennett’s (who, unhappily, later became one of
the Church’s worst enemies) was published on February 15, 1841.
In the second issue edited by Joseph Smith (March 1, 1842), the
Prophet published one of the facsimiles from a scroll that
accompanied the Egyptian he had acquired from Michael Chandler. The
facsimiles are now part of the Book of Abraham in the Pearl of Great
Price. In that same issue he also published the famous Wentworth
letter, in which he told the story of the First Vision, the coming
forth of The Book of Mormon, and the founding of the Church. The
letter also included the first listing of what are now the Articles
paper also published numerous items that were important politically.
One concerned John C. Bennett, who gave the political life of Nauvoo
a blow when he was shown to be dishonest, immoral, and in every way
leading a life antithetical to Church teachings. He also made serious
charges against Joseph Smith. When all his indiscretions were
publicly exposed he was cut off the Church and turned against it.
July 1, 1842, the Times
published a lengthy statement attesting to Bennett’s offenses.
Bennett had already resigned as mayor of Nauvoo, and this issue also
printed a sworn statement by him absolving Joseph Smith of charges he
had previously levied.
significant politically was the correspondence between Joseph Smith
and John C. Calhoun, instituted when Joseph was considering who he
might support for U.S. President in the 1844 election. His
correspondence with Calhoun was published in the Times
on January 1, 1844. His correspondence with Henry Clay on the same
subject was published June 1.
on February 15, John Taylor, editor of the paper, published a long
editorial under the title “Who Shall be Our Next President?”
It was no surprise that the answer was a ringing endorsement of
Joseph Smith, who had decided that he could support none of the major
candidates. His full political platform was published in the May 15
issue, taking up six pages.
was published regularly on the 1st
of each month, the June 15, 1844, issue never appeared. This may have
been related to the Expositor
affair, which led directly to the martyrdom of Joseph Smith and his
brother Hyrum. Most of the July 1 issue was related to that tragic
murder, and included, not surprisingly, a poem by Eliza R. Snow. It
Ye heavens attend! Let all the earth give ear!
Let Gods and seraphs, men and angels hear—
The worlds on high—the universe shall know
What awful scenes are acted here below!
Had nature's self a heart, her heart would bleed
At the recital of that horrid deed;
For never, since the Son of God was slain
Has blood so noble, flow'd from human vein
As that which now, on God for vengeance calls
From "freedom ground”—from Carthage prison walls!
same issue also published a very interesting series of letters
exchanged between Emma Smith and Illinois Governor Thomas Carlin in
months following the assassination of the Prophet constituted a time
of trouble for the Saints in Nauvoo, resulting in their forced
exodus, beginning in February 1846. However, the Times
provided what some would consider surprisingly little coverage of the
troubles. Rather, editor John Taylor may have felt that sustaining
the faith of the Saints was more important, for he mostly published
material of a religious, faith-sustaining nature. This included the
continuation of Joseph Smith’s history.
next-to-last issue, however, carried an editorial about the
forthcoming exodus as well as an article about the projected voyage
of the ship Brooklyn
that would carry 238 Saints from New York to California. The final
issue, February 15, 1846, made further reference to the Brooklyn
and even included a list of rules that the passengers must obey
came to an end. However, if you are to any degree a Church history
buff you need to find some way to go through at least some of its 131
issues. You may weep and/or grow angry at the stories of the Missouri
persecutions, find delight in reading some of Joseph Smith’s
own history, feel the spirit of the times while perusing the poetry
of Eliza R. Snow, Parley P. Pratt and others, smile at a few quaint
wedding announcements as well as the fantastic claims of patent
medicine ads, read missionary experiences, and find great interest in
the way the doctrines of the Church were often presented in that day.
For some it may seem to be a chore to plow through the unillustrated
and sometimes tedious prose of that time, but for those who really
want to feel the spirit of those early days in Nauvoo this is one of
the places to go.5
two major articles dealing with the history of the Times
are Parry D. Sorensen, “Nauvoo Times and Seasons,”
of the Illinois State Historical Society
55 (Summer 1962): 117-35, and Robert T. Bray, “Times and
Seasons: An Archaeological Perspective on Early Latter Day Saints
13 (1979), 53-119.
Actually, it is unclear to me just who dug up the press and type.
Some sources say it was Elias Smith and Hyrum Clark, but Bray says it
was Robinson and Don Carlos Smith. His article seems to me to be more
For more information on The
see Jerry C. Jolley, “The Sting of the Wasp: Early Nauvoo
Newspaper—April 1842 to April 1843,” BYU
22 (Fall 1982), 487–96. For a short discussion of the Nauvoo
see Darwin L. Hays, “Nauvoo Neighbor” in Daniel H.
Ludlow, ed., Encyclopedia
(New York: Macmillan), 999.
This was not the first time a Church leader had put together a list
of basic beliefs, and most of those stated in the Articles of Faith
had been identified earlier. However, this was the first list to be
put forth by Joseph Smith himself. It is assumed that in preparing it
he drew from some previous writings of others. See John W. Welch and
David J. Whittaker, “‘We Believe....’ Development
of the Articles of Faith,” Ensign
(September 1979), 50-55.
Unfortunately, copies of the Times
are not readily available except at a few libraries that hold
significant LDS collections. If you wish to see the complete text of
all issues of the Times
online go to http://www.centerplace.org/history/ts.
This is not a photographic reproduction but, rather, simply a
reproduction of the text. There are some problems, however,
particularly with the poetry. The problems are probably connected
with electronic scanning of the text. In some poems (example, Eliza
R. Snow’s “My Father in Heaven,” now known as “O
My Father”), the lines are run together so that a line in one
stanza is followed by the line in a stanza a little lower on the
page. Also, there may be a few changes reflecting typographical
errors. For example, the masthead always carried the motto “Truth
Will Prevail,” but in the first issue “Prevail” was
inadvertently misspelled “Ptevail.” That is corrected in
this online version. Deseret Book’s gospelink.com also includes
but it is very difficult to navigate at this site and not all the
entries show up. However, through the website of the Marriot Library
at the University of Utah you can see digital copies of all the
JAMES B. ALLEN, Professor of History, Emeritus, Brigham Young University
James B. Allen was born June 14, 1927, in Ogden, Utah. He married Renée Jones, April 16,
1953. They have five children, twenty-one grandchildren and eight great-grandchildren . He
received his bachelor's degree in history form Utah State University in 1954, a master's degree
from Brigham Young University in 1956, and the Ph.D. from the University of Southern
California in 1963.
Active in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints all his life, he has served in numerous
positions, including bishop of two BYU wards and a member of 5 different BYU high councils.
In 1999-2000 he and Renée served as missionaries at the Boston Institute of Religion.
He has also been active in the Republican party and twice served as a delegate to the state
In his professional career, he taught in the LDS Seminary and Institute program from 1954-63,
after which he was a member of the faculty at Brigham Young University until his retirement in
1992. From 1972 to 1979 he also served as Assistant Church Historian (splitting his time
between BYU and the Church Historical Department). He was chair of the History Department
from 1981-1987 then, during his last five years at BYU, he was honored to hold the Lemuel
Hardison Redd, Jr. Chair in Western American History. After his retirement he became
associated with the Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History at BYU, where
for several years he held an appointment as a Senior Research Fellow.
He has also been active in various professional organizations, including the Western History
Association (served on various committees, and as chair of a program committee) and the
Mormon History Association (president, 1971-73). He has been on various boards of editors and
advisory committees and presented numerous papers at the meetings of various historical
As a researcher and writer he is the author, co-author, or co-editor of fourteen books or
monographs and around 90 articles relating to Western American history and Mormon history,
as well as numerous book reviews in professional journals. Some of his books include the
The Company Town in the American West (University of Oklahoma Press, 1966)
The Story of the Latter-day Saints (with Glen M. Leonard; Deseret Book Company, 1976;
2nd edition 1992)
Trials of Discipleship: The Story of William Clayton, a Mormon (University of Illinois
Press, 1987). Revised and republished in 2002 by BYU Press under the title No
Toil Nor Labor Fear: The Story of William Clayton. In 1986, while still in press,
this book won the prestigious David Woolley Evans and Beatrice Cannon Evans
Men With a Mission: The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the British Isles, 1837-1841
(with Ronald K. Esplin and David J. Whittaker, Deseret Book Company, 1992)
Studies in Mormon History 1830-1997: An Indexed Bibliography (with Ronald W.
Walker and David J. Whittaker; University of Illinois Press, 2000). Allen was the
lead investigator for this important work. It lists, and provides an index to, all the
significant books, articles, doctoral dissertations and master's theses on Mormon
history produced between 1830 and 1997. It has been widely hailed as one of the
most important aids to finding LDS history ever published. In 2001 the Mormon
History Association awarded the authors a special citation for the publication of
this book. After that, working with J. Michael Hunter, Allen continued to update
the bibliography database. Hunter has now taken over the updating, and the
database is online at mormonhistory.byu.edu.
Mormon History (with Ronald W. Walker and David J. Whittaker, University of Illinois
Press, 2001). This book is a history of the writing of Mormon history, from the
days of Joseph Smith until the present time.
Over the years he has received various awards, honors, and recognitions, besides those indicated
above. Among them were several "best article" awards; the Karl G. Maeser Research and
Creative Arts Award, Brigham Young University, 1980; named Distinguished Faculty Lecturer,
Brigham Young University, 1984; named a Fellow of the Utah State Historical Society, July 15,
1988; the Leonard J. Arrington Award for a Distinctive Contribution to the cause of Mormon
History, awarded by the Mormon History Asociation, 2008.
James and Renée have enjoyed living in Orem, Utah since 1963.
He currently serves as Sunday School President in his ward, and he and Renée have been officiators
in the Mt. Timpanogos Temple since 2004.