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September 30, 2014
Rambling Thoughts on Church History
Hosanna!
by James B. Allen

Every once in while I find myself tearfully welling up inside during an experience that, even though I am also sharing it with others, is very personal. The last such occasion came on the morning of Sept 21, 2014, as I attended, via closed circuit television, the rededication of the Ogden Temple.

As the service drew to a close I participated, along with thousands of other Latter-day Saints in the state of Utah, in the Hosanna Shout.

As the ceremony began I could not help but recall when, as a young man, I read about the Hosanna Shout that took place during the dedication of the Kirtland Temple and at other times. I envisioned congregations large and small shouting “Hosanna” in unison several times as they praised God and gave thanks for His blessings.

I remembered longing to participate in what I believed would be a very special and powerful spiritual experience — joining with many others in that sacred ceremony. I was not disappointed as, in later years, I attended several temple dedications.

Each time that I stood and waved my white handkerchief in rhythm with everyone else and shouted “Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna to God and the Lamb. Amen, Amen, and Amen,” I was filled with emotion as I thought of what the shout meant for the Lord’s people in the early days of the Church and what it means for me today.

As I left the dedication services it struck me that I should refresh myself on the history of the Hosanna Shout and share a bit of it with readers of Nauvoo Times. As I looked around for information I ran across several references but three delightful articles were especially helpful to me.1 I will not summarize them here, but most of what follows is based on those articles.

The precise form and use of the Hosanna Shout is nowhere defined in scripture or in authoritative doctrinal statements. Like some other practices, its official use today is based on long-standing tradition.

In addition, both the use and precise nature of the shout have gone through slight changes over the years and some form of the shout has been used on various occasions other than temple dedications, particularly in the 19th Century. The word is spelled variously in the sources, hosanna and hosannah, but I will use the first form here unless it is included in a direct quotation.

One very precise (though unofficial) statement about the meaning and nature of the shout as given at temple dedications is found in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism:

The Hosanna Shout is whole-souled, given to the full limit of one's strength. The congregation stands and in unison shouts the words "Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna to God and the Lamb. Amen, Amen, and Amen," repeating them three times. This is usually accompanied by the rhythmic waving of white handkerchiefs with uplifted hands. The epithet "Lamb" relates to the condescension and Atonement of Jesus Christ.

The Hosanna Shout memorializes the pre-earthly Council in Heaven, as "when…all the sons of God shouted for joy" (Job 38:7). It also recalls the hosannas and the waving of palm branches accorded the Messiah as he entered Jerusalem. And hosannas welcomed him as he appeared to the Nephites. President Lorenzo Snow taught that this shout will herald the Messiah when he comes in the glory of the Father (cf. 1 Thes. 4:16).2

At one time in my life I had the impression that the Hosanna Shout had its origin in Old Testament times, but I later realized that this simply is not true. In fact, the word hosanna does not even appear in the King James version of the Old Testament.3

In the New Testament the word is used as an expression of praise to Jesus because of the great things He did. During His triumphal entry into Jerusalem those welcoming Him cried “Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest” (Matthew 21:9).

On another occasion the priests in the temple were angered when they saw children praising the Savior saying “Hosanna to the Son of David” (Matthew 21:15). Similarly, hosanna is used in the Book of Mormon and in some of the revelations in the Doctrine and Covenants as an expression of praise and thanksgiving to the Lord.

Spontaneous Shouts of Hosanna

It was not unusual in the early history of the Church for members to spontaneously shout expressions of thanksgiving during or after a great spiritual experience and use the word hosanna in their exultation. One example came even before the Church was organized.

As Martin Harris witnessed the plates of the Book of Mormon at the hands of the angel Moroni in 1829, he cried out in joyful ecstasy, “’Tis enough: ’tis enough: mine eyes have beheld; mine eyes have beheld,” then jumped up and shouted “Hosanna,” blessing God and rejoicing.4

There are numerous other examples of Church members spontaneously shouting and/or singing praise and thanksgiving and often using the word hosanna. On June 1, 1830, for example, during the Church’s first conference, some of the brethren experienced especially powerful and physically exhausting spiritual manifestations and, according to Joseph Smith’s History, when their strength was restored “they shouted hosannas to God and the Lamb, and rehearsed the glorious things which they had seen and felt, whilst they were yet in the spirit.”5

According to Heber C. Kimball, when he and Brigham Young heard the gospel for the first time in 1831, it “caused such great joy to spring up in our bosoms, that we were hardly able to contain ourselves, and we did shout aloud, Hosannah to God and the Lamb.”6 These spontaneous shouts were not related to the official version of the Hosanna Shout in temple dedications but, like the temple shout, they were expressions of overwhelming joy.

Indeed, by revelation through the Prophet Joseph Smith, the Lord commanded his servants to shout “hosanna” as they preached the gospel to others. Martin Harris was told to “speak freely to all; yea, preach, exhort, declare the truth, even with a loud voice, with a sound of rejoicing, crying — Hosanna, hosanna, blessed be the name of the Lord God!” (D&C 19: 37).

Edward Partridge was told to “declare it with a loud voice, saying: Hosanna, blessed be the name of the most high God” (D&C 36:3). James Coville was instructed to “go forth, crying with a loud voice, saying: The kingdom of heaven is at hand; crying: Hosanna! blessed be the name of the Most High God” (D&C 19:19).

There are many more examples of spontaneous shouts of hosanna in the early days of the Church. On April 6, 1841, Elders Brigham Young, John Taylor, George A. Smith, Parley P.Pratt, and Orson Pratt arrived in England. There they joined with other apostles who had arrived earlier to participate in one of the most important missions in the early history of the Church.

Brigham Young later recalled that as they stepped ashore in Liverpool and he got both feet firmly planted “I gave a shout of hosannah ... I felt that the chains were broken and the bonds that were upon me were burst asunder.”7

On March 4, 1852, the members of the Utah’s territorial legislature, all of whom were Church members, along with Governor Brigham Young, and their wives met at Salt Lake City’s Council House for what Wilford Woodruff described as an “excellent feast” and an “excellent social party.” Brigham Young gave an address and the evening closed “with a shout of Hosannah.”8

At one point a Hosanna Shout even resonated in the Utah Territorial Penitentiary. In March 1886 Lorenzo Snow, a member of the First Presidency, was sent to prison for practicing plural marriage. Because of the Edmunds Act of 1881, several other LDS men were also there. As described by one of President Snow’s biographers:

When general conference time came, they were unable to meet with the Saints. Rather than just feel downhearted, Lorenzo Snow called the Latter-day Saint prisoners together and said,

"Brethren, we have learned in sacred circumstances to offer the Hosanna Shout. Now, we're being denied the privilege of attending conference. But we have the right, in this setting, to offer our Hosanna Shout to the Lord, to exalt and honor him, to express gratitude that our lives are blessed, even in these circumstances. All of you who would like to join me in this, raise your right hand."

They all raised their hands. I don't know where they found the white handkerchiefs, but they performed the Hosanna Shout at the top of their lungs. It would be interesting to know what the other prisoners made of it. Rudger Clawson said at the funeral of Lorenzo Snow, “The shout ascended to heaven. I testify to you . . . that that great shout was acceptable to the Lord.”9

In our day we seldom, if ever, hear of impromptu hosanna shouting as expressions of spiritual joy. But it is well to remember that such things are important parts of our religious heritage.

At Meetings other than Temple Dedications

Beyond such spontaneous, informal shouts, there have been times that a Hosanna Shout has been a planned part of meetings or activities other than temple dedications. For example, there were occasions in the early years that a shout of “hosanna” was seen as a “sealing” of a special blessing or spiritual experience.

An especially poignant example came in 1839. as members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles were making their way toward England on that all-important early mission. On Sunday, November 17, Elders Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor, and George A. Smith , along with two missionaries who were accompanying them, Reuben Hedlock and Theodore Turley, visited the Kirtland Temple.

There, less than four years earlier, the Savior, Elijah, Elias, and Moses had appeared and restored certain ancient and important keys and authority to Joseph Smith. Undoubtedly the missionaries thought of that sacred event as they held a meeting with some of the local elders that evening.

As the meeting drew to a close Elders Young, Kimball, and Smith consecrated some “pure sweet oil” with which Brigham Young anointed John Taylor and then gave him a special blessing. He was the only member of the Quorum who had not previously received such a blessing in the temple.

Daniel S. Miles then gave a similar anointing to Theodore Turley, after which both Elders Taylor and Turley each gave special prayers, pouring out the desires of their hearts. The anointings were then “sealed” by the congregation shouting “hosanna!” This was indeed a day of spiritual renewal for the apostles and their companions, and a shout of “hosanna” was part of it.10

Early in the morning of May 24, 1845, a large crowd of Saints were gathered to witness the laying of the capstone on the Nauvoo Temple. Everyone was in perfect silence at 6:08 a.m. as William Player, the temple’s master mason, began spreading the mortar and the stone was lifted to its place. Brigham Young stepped up and placed the stone in position and at 6:22 the stone was pronounced set and Pitt’s band began to play a rousing march.

“The last stone is now laid upon the Temple” said Brigham Young, “and I pray the Almighty in the name of Jesus to defend us in this place and sustain us until the Temple is finished and we have all got our endowments.” At that point the whole congregation shouted, “Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna, to God and the Lamb, Amen, Amen, and Amen,” repeated three times.

Elder Young then concluded the ceremony by saying “'So let it be, O Lord Almighty. This is the seventh day of the week or the Jewish Sabbath. It is the day on which the Almighty finished his work and rested from his labors; we have finished the walls of the Temple and we may rest today from our labors.”11

On December 27, 1847, at the end of a special three-day general conference in Kanesville, Iowa, Brigham Young was sustained as President of the Church. President Young then addressed the conference after which music was played by a band and Elder George A. Smith led the group in “most heartily” shouting “Hosanna, Hosanna, Hosanna to God and the Lamb. Amen! Amen! and Amen!”12

On August 1, 1848, the people of the Salt Lake Valley met in the bowery to celebrate their harvest. Despite the fact that this was not a great year (the cricket problem had destroyed many of their crops), it was a joyful time as they celebrated what they had.

As one person reported: “A most excellent dinner, comprised of a great variety of food, and all produced in the Valley, was prepared and eaten. There was prayer and thanksgiving, the firing of cannon, music and dancing and loud shouts of Hosanna to God and the Lamb, in which all present joined in unison.”13

The July 24th, 1875, celebration in Brigham City provided an especially unique occasion for the Hosanna Shout. About 300 Indians who had been baptized attended and one of the meetings celebrated them and their relationship to the Church.

As the noon meal was being served, Lorenzo Snow arose and spoke of the remarkable spirit attending the meeting and proposed that after the blessing they all join in “holy and sacred shouts of hosanna.” He gave instructions with regard to the words to be used while similar instructions were being given to the Indians.

Then, “with spirited energy, all followed Prest. Snow, and a mighty shout of ‘Hosanna! “Hosanna! Hosanna! To God and the Lamb,’ &c., went up from the vast assembly, causing impressions and thoughts that will never be obliterated.”14 The “&c” in the report suggests that, as on other occasions, the shout was repeated three times and included “Amen.”

On October 26-27, 1890, President Wilford Woodruff presided over a stake conference in Brigham City. At the end of the second day, as recorded in his diary, “We Closed the Conference with the shout of (Hosannah to God & the Lamb) which was . . . vary impressive & solemn. It was one of the most interesting Conferences I have attended in the Stakes in these Mountains.”15

On July 2, 1899 the Hosanna Shout was part of a special Solemn Assembly of Church leaders held to present President Lorenzo Snow’s revelation on tithing.

The Hosanna Shout was also part of two meetings of the secret but influential Council of Fifty in 1844 as well as part of at least four general conferences (April 11, 1852; October 6, 1862; April 9, 1882; April 6, 1830).

The use of the Hosanna Shout occurred frequently and on varied occasions throughout the nineteenth century, but in the twentieth century it declined and almost disappeared, except for temple dedications.

One notable exception was Sunday, April 6, 1930, the centennial anniversary of the organization of the Church. In the first session of general conference President Heber J. Grant led the congregation in the same shout we are familiar with today. As noted in the official Conference Report, “The waving of the white handkerchiefs in almost perfect unison and the shouting of praises to God and the Lamb by the thousands of people assembled in the great tabernacle, was perhaps the most thrilling and impressive religious solemnity that those present had ever witnessed.”16

Another exception was when the Hosanna Shout was used in the dedication of The Conference Center on October 8, 2000, during General Conference.

Ritualized Shout

The Hosanna Shout became ritualized in 1836. This does not mean that the present form and wording were always exactly the same, but that a shouting ceremony very close to what we know today, led by a priesthood leader, was specifically planned and incorporated into a meeting. The wording was sometimes slightly different from what we use today but the purpose and meaning were the same.

The ritualization began in a small way in January 1836, even before the dedication of the Kirtland Temple. On January 21 many Church members received special anointing and also received various spiritual manifestations, including the visitation of angels, and, according to Joseph Smith’s History, “the house was filled with the glory of God, and we shouted Hosanna to God and the Lamb.”17

This was apparently an organized shout — the first in the history of the Church.

Another came the following day as the spiritual activities continued. As recorded by Edward Partridge, “Prest. J. S. Jun., requested Prest. Sidney Rigdon to ask the Lord to accept the performances of the evening, and instructed us, when he was done, to shout Hosannah, Blessed be the name of the Most High God. These things were performed; the shout & speaking in unknown tongues lasted 10 or 15 minutes.

During the evening, more especially at the time of shouting, a number saw visions as they disclosed unto us.”18

The tradition of conducting a special Hosanna Shout at a temple dedication began with the dedication of the Kirtland Temple on March 27, 1836. It was a long service, and one quite different from dedications we have attended in our day. Church members began arriving at the temple about 7 a.m.

The doors opened an hour later and the Prophet himself, along with Oliver Cowdery and Sidney Rigdon, seated the members as they filed in. The service began at 9 a.m and lasted until 4 o’clock that afternoon.

The program included scripture reading; a hymn written by Parley P. Pratt and sung by a choir; an address by Sidney Rigdon; a congregational hymn that had been written by W. W. Phelps; another discourse by Sidney Rigdon; another hymn, “Now Let us Rejoice in the Day of Salvation,” also written by W. W. Phelps; a twenty minute intermission during which the congregation remained in their seats; another hymn, “Adam-ondi-Ahman;” a short address by Joseph Smith; sustaining of the General Authorities of Church and then of high councils, bishoprics, elders quorum presidency, and Aaronic priesthood presidency; another congregational hymn; then the dedicatory prayer, which had been given by revelation to Joseph Smith and now constitutes section 109 of the Doctrine and Covenants.

The prayer included a plea to “help us by the power of Thy Spirit, that we may mingle our voices with those bright, shining seraphs around thy Throne, with acclamations of praise, singing hosanna to God and the Lamb” (verse 79).

This was followed by the choir singing “The Spirit of God Like a Fire is Burning” after which the various priesthood quorums separately and then the congregation as a whole were asked if they accepted the prayer and acknowledge the house dedicated. The vote was unanimous in the affirmative.

The sacrament of the Lord’s supper was then administered , the Prophet bore his testimony, a few others bore theirs, and some reported seeing angels. Sidney Rigdon closed the meeting with a few remarks and a short prayer “at the close of which,” says the Prophet’s history, “we sealed the proceedings of the day by shouting hosanna, hosanna, hosanna to God and the Lamb, three times, sealing it each time with amen, amen, and amen.”19

The shout, led by Sidney Rigdon, was given with uplifted hands. Thus the pattern was set for the Hosanna Shout at the conclusion of each temple dedication thereafter.

It should be no surprise that there were some modifications in the pattern from time to time, both in temple dedications and at other times the shout was used. At this first temple dedication there is no mention of waving white handkerchiefs, though that became standard in later years.

When the First Presidency was reorganized on December 27, 1847, on each word the participants struck the right fist into the palm of the left hand. In another instance the participants clapped their hands in rhythm with the shout.

On November 9, 1871, the site for the St. George Temple was dedicated and ground was broken. After the ground breaking President Brigham Young stood on a chair and instructed the congregation on how to perform the Hosanna Shout. In this case as the shout was given the participants raised their right hands in the air and clapped them with their left hands as they gave the traditional shout: ‘Hosanna! Hosanna! Hosanna! To God and the Lamb. Amen! Amen! And Amen!”20

On April 9, 1882, President John Taylor gave a long and impassioned discourse before a general conference of the Church. With the Church facing legal persecution he talked to the Saints not just about the injustices they faced but about their duties as Saints, exhorting them to righteousness.

“God has delivered us before,” he proclaimed. “He will deliver us again, if we put our trust in Him and remain true to the covenants we have made with Him. Our trust is in God. You have heard me say before, Hosanna, the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth; and if this congregation feels as I do we will join together in the same acclaim. Follow me.”

At that point he led the congregation as it shouted “Hosanna! Hosanna! Hosanna! to God and the Lamb, for ever and ever worlds without end, Amen, Amen and Amen.”21 Note that in this case the words “for ever and ever worlds without end” were added.

Perhaps one of the most dramatic occasions on which a Hosanna Shout was given came on April 6, 1892, during the annual General conference of the Church. That day the capstone was laid on the Salt Lake Temple. More than forty thousand people were gathered within the temple block and thousands more crowded the surrounding area to watch and participate in the special service, which began at high noon.

The service included music by a band, a choir, and the congregation singing hymns, one specially composed for the occasion. Joseph F. Smith, a member of the First Presidency, offered a prayer which was followed by a huge “Amen” by the gathered throng. After a hymn President Wilford Woodruff announced the laying of the capstone, then closed an electric circuit that caused the granite hemisphere to slowly descend into position.

At that point the forty thousand Saints, led by President Lorenzo Snow of the Council of the Twelve, shouted as if with one voice: “Hosanna! Hosanna! Hosanna! To God and the Lamb! Amen! Amen! Amen,” accompanied by the waving of handkerchiefs and repeated three times. J. Don Carlos, the architect in charge, then announced that the capstone was laid and the choir and congregation broke out with the triumphant song “The Spirit of God Like a Fire is Burning!”22

Interestingly, there were two slight differences in that ceremony from what we know today. Handkerchiefs were waved during the shout but not for the words “to God and the Lamb.” Also, the handkerchiefs were not all white (probably because this was not a temple dedication and nearly everyone was outside).

As reported by the Salt Lake Tribune, the coloring was beautiful. “It was a novel sight to witness 40,000 people shouting all at the same time and waving their handkerchiefs. The coloring, from an artistic point of view, was beautiful. There were every color of handkerchiefs that one could imagine, although white predominated. There were blue handkerchiefs, red, yellow, black, purple and pink.”23

Just how impressive this occasion was could not have been captured better than in an expression by a non-Mormon observer. A reporter from the New York World wrote:

Nor could anything exceed the impressiveness of the response which the people gave instantaneously to the appeal of their President for the support of their voices. The great Tabernacle was filled with waves of sound as the “Amens” of the congregation burst out. The shout of men going into battle was not more stirring than the closing words of this memorable conference, spoken as if by one vast voice.24

Three temples were completed and dedicated in Utah before the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple. The first was in St. George and this occasion was considered so special that on April 6, 1877, the forty-seventh annual conference of the Church was held there and the temple was dedicated by Daniel H. Wells.

Dedicatory services were held over a period of three days and at each service Elder Lorenzo Snow led in the Hosanna Shout. Thus a pattern was established for all future temple dedications.

Next came the Logan Temple, dedicated on May 17, 1884. President John Taylor gave the dedicatory prayer and also led the assembled congregation in the Hosanna Shout. The shout was also part of the dedication of the Manti Temple on May 21, 1888.

On April 6, 1893, the Salt Lake Temple was dedicated, forty years after it was begun. It was an extra special occasion, and in order to accommodate all who wanted to attend dedication services were held daily, usually with two sessions each day, from April 6 to April 18, except on April 7, when a third sessions was held in the evening.

During the first service, President Wilford Woodruff gave the dedicatory prayer, after which Lorenzo Snow led the Saints in the Hosanna Shout. Also at that service the choir sang a new anthem, written by Evan Stephens especially for the occasion, “The House of the Lord is Completed.” Singing that anthem has become traditional in temple dedications.

So there you have it. Over the years the shouting of hosanna has taken place on various kinds of occasions: informal, spontaneous shouts by individuals or groups in connection with powerful spiritual experiences; planned shouts in connection with a variety of special occasions; and, most long-lasting, the standard shout at the temple dedications that we are so familiar with today.

And, of course, every time we sing that well-known hymn that was first sung at the dedication of the Kirtland Temple we each participate in a musical Hosanna Shout:

We'll sing & we'll shout with the armies of heaven:
Hosanna, hosanna to God and the Lamb!
Let glory to them in the highest be given,
Henceforth and forever: amen and amen!

NOTES

1. Jack W. Olmstead, “From Pentecost to Administration: A Reappraisal of the History of the Hosanna Shout,” Mormon Historical Studies 2:2 (Fall 2001): 7-37; Reed Durham, “What is the Hosanna Shout?,” New Era (September 1973), “Q & A: Questions and Answers” section; Steven H. Heath, “The Sacred Shout,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 19:3 (Fall 1986): 115-23. If you want to read the Olmstead article in full you can find it online at http://mormonhistoricsites.org/mormon-historical-studies-fall-2001-vol-2-no-2/. The Durham article may be accessed through www.lds.org and the Heath article may be downloaded from the Dialogue web site, www.dialoguejournl.com.

2. Lael J. Woodbury, “Hosanna Shout,” Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed Daniel H. Ludlow (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992), 659. See also Lael J. Woodbury, “The Origin and Uses of the Sacred Hosanna Shout,” Sperry Lecture Series [1975] (Provo, UT: BYU College of Religious Instruction,1975), 18-22.

3. However, a form of the word is found in Psalms 118:25: “Save now, I beseech thee, O LORD: O LORD, I beseech thee, send now prosperity.” I am no expert on the Hebrew language, but one online explanation of how this expression is related to “hosanna” seems reasonable to me. “The Hebrew words yasha (‘deliver, save’) and anna (‘beg, beseech’) combine to form the word that, in English, is ‘hosanna.’ Literally, hosanna means ‘I beg you to save!’ or ‘please deliver us!’” (http://www.gotquestions.org/hosanna.html). Webster’s dictionary says that the word is used as a cry of acclamation and adoration, but also points out that it comes from a Hebrew word that could mean “save us.”

4. Joseph Smith, History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ed. B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1946), I:55.

5.Ibid., 85.

6. Heber C. Kimball, “History of Brigham Young,” Millennial Star 26, no. 32 (6 August 1864): 504, as cited in Olmstead, “From Pentecost to Administration,” 11. Note that the word is sometimes spelled hosannah, and I have not changed it when quoting a source that used this spelling.

7. James B. Allen, Ronald K. Esplin, and David J. Whittaker, Men With a Mission: The Quorum of the Twelve in the British Isles 1837 - 1841 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1992), 83.

8. Wilford Woodruff, Wilford Woodruff’s Journal, 9 vols., ed., Scott G. Kenny (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1985), 4:102

9. Truman G. Madsen, Presidents of the Church (Salt Lake City, Deseret Book, 2004), section on Lorenzo Snow.

10. Allen, et al, Men With a Mission, 74-75.

11. B. H. Roberts, ed., History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Period II (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1931), 417-18.

12. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Deseret News Press, 1930), 3: 317.

13. The Juvenile Instructor 19: 7 (April1, 1884): 100.

14. The Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 35 (August 30, 1875): 549-50

15. Woodruff, Journal, 9:120.

16. Conference Report (April, 1930): 20.

17. Smith, History, 2: 381.

18. From the journal of Edward Partridge, as cited in Olmstead, “From Pentecost to Administration,” 14.

19. Smith, History 2:427-28.

20. Blaine M. Yorgason, Richard A. Schmutz, and Douglas D. Alder, All that Was Promised: The St. George Temple and the Unfolding of the Restoration (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2013), 95.

21. Journal of Discourses 23: 68.

22. James E. Talmage, House of the Lord: A Study of Holy Sanctuaries, Ancient and Modern (Salt Lake City, Deseret Book, 1912), 124-28.

23. “Attention All nations! President Woodruff Calls Them to Capstone Laying,” Salt Lake Tribune [The Daily Tribune[, (April 7, 1992), 5. This article carries a full description of that day’s proceedings.

24. As cited in Heath, “The Sacred Shout,” 122.


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