America owes an unpayable debt to painter Mary Cassatt (1844-1926).
She was the only American to become a significant part of the inner group of
French Impressionism. She was also the unrelenting campaigner who
persuaded Americans to collect the Impressionists.
Mary Cassatt was a fine painter, and though she lived much of her life in
France, she belongs to us. A collection of either Impressionist art or art by
American painters would be incomplete without her works.
"The Boating Party," by Mary Cassatt,
was depicted in a United States postage stamp. Measuring 35 1/2 x 48", it was painted 1895-94. It hangs in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Half a century ago the French complained that all the good Impressionist
paintings which were coming on the market were being bought by rich
Americans. We could only retort that, after all, the French had first choice in
the early days and generally blew it. Because of Cassatt, Americans weren't
Cassatt was not one of the first Impressionists, but she came to the movement
soon enough to become a wonderful part of it. Compared to the poverty of the
other painters, she drank from a silver cup. She was born near Pittsburgh,
where her father was a land speculator and stockbroker. Her mother, well
educated and well read, came from a banking family.
Mary was one of seven children, two of whom died in infancy. Her brother
became head of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
Well-rounded education required travel, and young Mary spent five early years
in Europe learning German and French and taking lessons in drawing and
music. She may have seen art by Ingres, Delacroix, Corot, Courbet, Degas, and
Pissarro at the 1855 Paris World's Fair; the latter two, who would become her
important friends, were not yet Impressionists.
Her parents were shocked and displeased when she informed them she was
going to become an artist. Fatigued of making academic drawings of plaster
casts at the Pennsylvania Academy, she announced she was going back to
Europe to become a real artist. The year was 1868 and she was twenty-three.
Her father reportedly complained, "I would almost rather see you dead."
She began by studying Old Masters in Spain and Italy. She moved to Paris in
1874, just when the first rays of Impressionism were poised to fracture
Academism. A dealer on Boulevard Hausmann put a Degas pastel in his
window. As Cassatt later said, she flattened her nose against the vitrine. She
knew who would be her great masters.
Cassatt did not meet the misanthropic, egocentric Degas until three years later.
Despite frictions, they became close friends; in fact she probably was Degas's
At the same time, she was an exceptionally gifted painter in her own right. An
early, pre-Impressionist painting was accepted for show by the Selection Jury
of the 1868 Paris Salon. Later works found their ways into important
museums. Her "The Boating Party," which hangs in the National Gallery of
Washington, D.C., has been featured on a postage stamp.
Cassatt became a resonant part of this new Impressionist wave. Because she
did not need to sell her paintings to live, she turned all her irrepressible energy,
charm, and influence towards selling the canvases of her friends - Monet,
Pissarro, Renoir, Cézanne, Sisley, and Degas - to her wealthy American friends.
She bought their paintings herself, financed the dealer Durant-Ruel when he
brought a collection of the Impressionists to New York City for show and sale,
held teas in her apartment to introduce artists to wealthy friends.
Sugar King H. O. Havemeyer assembled a significant collection because
Cassatt impelled him. So did Chicago's redoubtable Mrs. Potter Palmer, which
is why the Chicago Art Institute owns some of the greatest Impressionist
canvases ever painted. And the interest she started eventually led to other
breathtaking American accumulations such as the Barnes collection in
Pennsylvania, which includes hundreds of Impressionist paintings purchased
by the roomful.
Of her own considerable talent she was extremely modest. At one exposition
she was energetically trying to sell the work of her friends. A customer who
didn't know her protested,
"But madame, you are completely ignoring a painter that Degas considers very
"Who, then?"Cassatt asked in astonishment.
"Why, Mary Cassatt."
"Ah, bah!" Cassatt replied in genuine modesty.
The customer turned away muttering, "That must be a woman painter, and is
Lawrence Jeppson is an art consultant, organizer and curator of art exhibitions, writer, editor
and publisher, lecturer, art historian, and appraiser. He is America's leading authority on
modern, handwoven French tapestries. He is expert on the works of William Henry Clapp, Nat
Leeb, Tsing-fang Chen, and several French artists.
He is founding president of the non-profit Mathieu Matégot Foundation for Contemporary
Tapestry, whose purview encompasses all 20th-century tapestry, an interest that traces back to
1948. For many years he represented the Association des Peintres-Cartonniers de Tapisserie and
Arelis in America.
Through the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, the American Federation of
Arts, the Museum of Modern Art, and his own Art Circuit Services he has been a contributor to
or organizer of more than 200 art exhibitions in the United States, Canada, Japan, and Taiwan.
He owns AcroEditions, which publishes and/or distributes multiple-original art. He was co-founder and artistic director of Collectors' Investment Fund.
He is the director of the Spring Arts Foundation; Utah Cultural Arts Foundation, and the Fine
Arts Legacy Foundation
Lawrence is an early-in-the-month home teacher, whose beat is by elevator. In addition, he has spent the past six years hosting and promoting reunions of the missionaries who served in the French Mission (France, Belgium, and Switzerland) during the decade after WWII.