"No obstacles are insurmountable when God commands and we obey"
- - Heber J. Grant
June 12, 2015
The Yoke of Christ: Possible Connections to the Temple
by Jeff Lindsay

"Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls." — Matthew 11: 28-29

Last week in my first post on the yoke of Christ, we discussed Christ's reference to His yoke in Matthew 11 and mentioned how that concept could be a useful tool in clarifying the relationship between grace and works. The yoke is a symbol of a commitment, a relationship, even a covenant to follow and serve.

Christians of any denomination should recognize that Christ's commands to come unto Him and take His yoke upon us involves accepting and following His teachings. For us, that includes all that He has taught and given us.

Also for us, that also includes the teachings of the temple. Before I explain why, I'd like to share an interesting excerpt from an early Christian document that I alluded to in my previous post.

Speaking to those caught up in pagan Greek mysteries, Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-c. 215 AD) in his Exhortations to the Heathen (a.k.a. Protrepticus, a document believed to have been written around 195 AD), speaks of true mysteries that should replace heathen rites.

He refers to the sacred rites, "expounding them after [the] fashion" of the Greeks, describing the Christian mysteries as "dramas of the truth" with a sober choral dance. (I should point out that Hugh Nibley in "The Early Christian Prayer Circle" has noted the parallel between the Greek chorus/choral dance and the early Christian prayer circle.)

Here is a passage from Clement's Exhortation, available at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library (ccel.org):

Come, O madman, not leaning on the thyrsus, not crowned with ivy; throw away the mitre, throw away the fawn-skin; come to thy senses. I will show thee the Word, and the mysteries of the Word, expounding them after thine own fashion.

This is the mountain beloved of God, not the subject of tragedies like Cithæron, but consecrated to dramas of the truth, — a mount of sobriety, shaded with forests of purity; and there revel on it not the Mænades, the sisters of Semele, who was struck by the thunderbolt, practising in their initiatory rites unholy division of flesh, but the daughters of God, the fair lambs, who celebrate the holy rites of the Word, raising a sober choral dance.

The righteous are the chorus; the music is a hymn of the King of the universe. The maidens strike the lyre, the angels praise, the prophets speak; the sound of music issues forth, they run and pursue the jubilant band; those that are called make haste, eagerly desiring to receive the Father.

Come thou also, O aged man, leaving Thebes, and casting away from thee both divination and Bacchic frenzy, allow thyself to be led to the truth. I give thee the staff [of the cross] on which to lean. Haste, Tiresias; believe, and thou wilt see.

Christ, by whom the eyes of the blind recover sight, will shed on thee a light brighter than the sun; night will flee from thee, fire will fear, death will be gone; thou, old man, who saw not Thebes, shalt see the heavens.

O truly sacred mysteries! O stainless light! My way is lighted with torches, and I survey the heavens and God; I become holy whilst I am initiated. The Lord is the hierophant [that which brings someone into the presence of the holy, like the keeper of the gate in 2 Nephi 9], and seals while illuminating him who is initiated, and presents to the Father him who believes, to be kept safe for ever. Such are the reveries of my mysteries.

If it is thy wish, be thou also initiated; and thou shall join the choir along with angels around the unbegotten and indestructible and the only true God, the Word of God, raising the hymn with us. This Jesus, who is eternal, the one great High Priest of the one God, and of His Father, prays for and exhorts men.

“Hear, ye myriad tribes, rather whoever among men are endowed with reason, both barbarians and Greeks. I call on the whole race of men, whose Creator I am, by the will of the Father.

“Come to Me, that you may be put in your due rank under the one God and the one Word of God; and do not only have the advantage of the irrational creatures in the possession of reason; for to you of all mortals I grant the enjoyment of immortality.

“For I want, I want to impart to you this grace, bestowing on you the perfect boon of immortality; and I confer on you both the Word and the knowledge of God, My complete self.

“This am I, this God wills, this is symphony, this the harmony of the Father, this is the Son, this is Christ, this the Word of God, the arm of the Lord, the power of the universe, the will of the Father; of which things there were images of old, but not all adequate.

I desire to restore you according to the original model, that ye may become also like Me. I anoint you with the ungent of faith, by which you throw off corruption, and show you the naked form of righteousness by which you ascend to God.

Come to Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest to your souls. For My yoke is easy, and My burden light.”

Let us haste, let us run, my fellow-men — us, who are God-loving and God-like images of the Word. Let us haste, let us run, let us take His yoke, let us receive, to conduct us to immortality, the good charioteer of men. Let us love Christ.

He led the colt with its parent; and having yoked the team of humanity to God, directs His chariot to immortality, hastening clearly to fulfil, by driving now into heaven, what He shadowed forth before by riding into Jerusalem. A spectacle most beautiful to the Father is the eternal Son crowned with victory.

Let us aspire, then, after what is good; let us become God-loving men, and obtain the greatest of all things which are incapable of being harmed — God and life. Our helper is the Word; let us put confidence in Him; …

There is therefore no room to doubt, the Word will say, whether it is better to be sane or insane; but holding on to truth with our teeth, we must with all our might follow God, and in the exercise of wisdom regard all things to be, as they are, His; and besides, having learned that we are the most excellent of His possessions, let us commit ourselves to God, loving the Lord God, and regarding this as our business all our life long.

And if what belongs to friends be reckoned common property, and man be the friend of God — for through the mediation of the Word has he been made the friend of God — then accordingly all things become man’s, because all things are God’s, and the common property of both the friends, God and man.

It is time, then, for us to say that the pious Christian alone is rich and wise, and of noble birth, and thus call and believe him to be God’s image, and also His likeness, having become righteous and holy and wise by Jesus Christ, and so far already like God.

Accordingly this grace is indicated by the prophet, when he says, “I said that ye are gods, and all sons of the Highest.” For us, yea us, He has adopted, and wishes to be called the Father of us alone, not of the unbelieving. Such is then our position who are the attendants of Christ.

Here are some surprising connections between the yoke imagery of Matthew 11:28-30 and rites of initiation, including a reference to anointing, part of the mysteries aimed at bringing us into the presence of God and becoming more like him.

There are many temple themes there connected to the concept of the yoke, though there, instead of a heavy yoke for slowly plodding oxen, it is the yoke of a charioteer wishing to bring us swiftly home, into the presence of God, where it is our destiny to become more like Him. Fast or slow, though, it remains a yoke, and its purpose is to bring us home — as we pull our burden for the Lord.

What of these mysteries and rites mentioned by Clement of Alexandria?

The LDS faith and significant portions of early Christianity share an important element that divides us from much of modern Christianity, namely, the belief that there are sacred teachings and ceremonies that are not directly found in canonical writings and were simply not meant to be published at all.

Such teachings and practices are found in the LDS temple, where we make sacred covenants and obtain sacred insights that we do not discuss in detail outside the temple. Those covenants to us are part of taking on the yoke of Christ.

In other words, the teachings of Christ that we take upon us are both the public and the private teachings; those given to the world in open sermons, and those given in further revelations to His apostles and prophets, including the sacred concepts of the restored temple.

That Christ taught many things beyond what is recorded in the New Testament should be obvious. It is also explicitly taught in the New Testament.

Not long before His death, the Savior told his disciples, "I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now" (John 16:12).

After the Resurrection, Acts 1:1-3 indicates that to the Apostles he showed himself and spoke "of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God" during a period of forty days. Not a word of what he taught during those 40 days is recorded in the canon we now have.

Was this all fluff of no importance to Christians, or was it more advanced and sacred material for followers better prepared to understand and bear them? A great deal of early Christian tradition points to the latter.

Lest you think that Clement of Alexandria is just speaking figuratively about the public canon of scripture, elsewhere he explicitly refers to unwritten material from the apostles. For example, in Stromata, Book 6, at the end of chapters 7 and 8, we find some interesting material as he discusses this higher knowledge, or gnosis.

E.g., "And the gnosis itself is that which has descended by transmission to a few, having been imparted unwritten by the apostles." Chapter 15 also affirms that there was unwritten knowledge given by Christ to the apostles.

The concept of secret doctrines and mysteries taught by Christ to his apostles is attested in several other early Christian documents, as Barry Bickmore has documented in Restoring the Ancient Church (Redding, CA: FAIRMormon, 1999) and on a related website. For example, in the fourth century, Basil of Caesarea (c. 330 to 379) in De Spirito Sancto spoke of doctrines "received from the unwritten tradition of the Fathers" (Chapter 9, verse 22) and said much more in Chapter 27:

66. Of the beliefs and practices whether generally accepted or publicly enjoined which are preserved in the Church some we possess derived from written teaching; others we have received delivered to us in a mystery by the tradition of the apostles; and both of these in relation to true religion have the same force.

And these no one will gainsay — no one, at all events, who is even moderately versed in the institutions of the Church.

For were we to attempt to reject such customs as have no written authority, on the ground that the importance they possess is small, we should unintentionally injure the Gospel in its very vitals; …. Moreover we bless the water of baptism and the oil of the chrism, and besides this the catechumen who is being baptized.

On what written authority do we do this? Is not our authority silent and mystical tradition? Nay, by what written word is the anointing of oil itself taught? And whence comes the custom of baptizing thrice?

And as to the other customs of baptism from what Scripture do we derive the renunciation of Satan and his angels? Does not this come from that unpublished and secret teaching which our fathers guarded in a silence out of the reach of curious meddling and inquisitive investigation?

Well had they learned the lesson that the awful dignity of the mysteries is best preserved by silence. What the uninitiated are not even allowed to look at was hardly likely to be publicly paraded about in written documents. ….

In the same manner [this comes after mentioning Moses and his shielding of the Holy of Holies] the Apostles and Fathers who laid down laws for the Church from the beginning thus guarded the awful dignity of the mysteries in secrecy and silence, for what is bruited abroad random among the common folk is no mystery at all.

This is the reason for our tradition of unwritten precepts and practices, that the knowledge of our dogmas may not become neglected and contemned by the multitude through familiarity….

67. Time will fail me if I attempt to recount the unwritten mysteries of the Church…. While the unwritten traditions are so many, and their bearing on the mystery of godliness [1 Timothy 3:16] is so important, can they refuse to allow us a single word which has come down to us from the Fathers; — which we found, derived from untutored custom, abiding in unperverted churches; — a word for which the arguments are strong, and which contributes in no small degree to the completeness of the force of the mystery?

Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) in The Divine Institutes, Book 7, Chapter 26, spoke of a hidden mystery kept from the world:

…God orders us in quietness and silence to hide His secret, and to keep it within our own conscience; and not to strive with obstinate contention against those who are ignorant of the truth, and who rigorously assail God and His religion not for the sake of learning, but of censuring and jeering.

For a mystery ought to be most faithfully concealed and covered, especially by us, who bear the name of faith. But they accuse this silence of ours, as though it were the result of an evil conscience; whence also they invent some detestable things respecting those who are holy and blameless, and willingly believe their own inventions.

If there were more advanced concepts that Christ wanted to teach, but which his disciples were not yet ready to "bear them now" as he said in John 16:12, could it be that at a later time, such as during His 40-day ministry, that they would receive them and be ready to "bear them"? Could those teachings are part of the full yoke of Christ that we are to bear?

One of the earliest Christian documents after the New Testament, the Didache, uses this term, the "full yoke" of the Lord and links it to the goal of perfection: "If you can bear the Lord's full yoke, you will be perfect. But if you cannot, then do what you can."

Latter-day Saints would concur that taking up the full yoke of Christ is part of the quest to ultimately be perfected, through the grace of Christ — though it involves faithfully bearing the Lord's yoke.

The extensive literature related to the 40-day ministry of Christ is touched upon in Hugh Nibley's scholarly treatise, "Evangelium Quadraginta Dierum: The Forty-day Mission of Christ-The Forgotten Heritage" (Vigiliae Christianae 20:1 (1966): 1-24; reprinted by the Maxwell Institute).

That literature is part of a great deal of recent evidence pointing to very ancient roots for the modern LDS temple, roots that cannot be explained by the several elements that appear to have been borrowed from modern Masonry or from other modern sources Joseph may have had access to.

For one of the most definitive works on the relationship between the temple and Freemasonry, with exposition regarding its more ancient roots, see the recent work of Jeffrey Bradshaw, "Freemasonry and the Origins of Modern Temple Ordinances," Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture, 15 (2015): 159-237. Some related information is also available on my LDSFAQ page on the LDS Temple and Freemasonry.

An excellent LDS source for understanding the extensive ancient roots of the LDS temple is Matthew R. Brown's large volume, The Gate of Heaven: Insights on the Doctrines and Symbols of the Temple (American Fork, Utah: Covenant Communications, 1999).

Regarding the 40-day literature, Nibley in "Evangelium Quadraginta Dierum" writes:

The apocryphal teachings of the 40 days taken together comprise an imposing doctrinal edifice, totally unlike the patchwork systems of the Gnostics. It begins with the most natural question to ask anyone returning to earth after being away: Where did you go and what did you see?

The Lord's discourse in reply recalls the journeys to worlds above and below recounted by the prophets and patriarchs of the old Jewish apocrypha.63 And yet the picture is quite different: They go as observers and report what they have seen, while he goes as a missionary and reports what he has done.

The central theme is the Descensus, a mission to the spirits below closely resembling the Lord's earthly calling.64 He brings the kerygma [the proclamation of the Gospel] to all, and those who accept it follow him out of the depths into the light,65 receive baptism,66 and hence mount up by degrees to realms of glory, for as in the Jewish apocrypha the picture of other worlds is not a simple one.67

This mounting up is depicted as the return of the spirit to its heavenly home, where it existed in glory before coming to earth.68 This is not the Gnostic idea of preexistence, however, for the soul is not sent down as punishment nor imprisoned in the flesh, nor does it fly directly to God after its release from physical confinement;69 rather it is sent to be tried and tested in "the blessed vessel" of the flesh whose immortality is guaranteed by the resurrection.70

There is a strong emphasis in early Christian literature on the doctrine of the Two Ways, depicting life as a time of probation, a constant confrontation with good and evil and the obligation to choose between them.71

This is conceived as part of a plan laid down "in the presence of the first angels" at the creation of the world,72 according to which through Adam's fall the human race would be placed in the position, envied by the angels, of being perfectly free to choose good or evil and thereby fully merit whatever rewards would follow.73

Satan rebelled against the plan, refused obeisance to Adam, and was cast down upon the earth with his cohorts, to fulfill divine purpose by providing, as "the serpent," the temptation necessary for an effectual testing of human beings.74

Through inspired prophets men from time to time are taught the rules of the game, but are prone to cheat, fall away into darkness, and require painful correction before return to divine favor and a new dispensation of heavenly gifts and covenants.75

The historical picture is a complicated one, culminating in the final return of the Lord, but not before he has made other appearances, notably to a few "righteous and pure souls and faithful," preparatory to the ultimate and glorious parousia.76

What gives substance to this peculiar doctrinal structure is the imposing body of rites and ordinances that goes with it.77 Ritual and doctrinal elements are inextricably interwoven in a complex in which everything is oddly literal and all fit solidly together: The kerygma, whether above or below, is real and must have a "seal," which is baptism, though the word is also used to designate rites of washing and anointing that go with it;78 after such rites the initiate receives a symbolic but real and tangible garment,79 and then sits down to a sacral meal, a real repast celebrating the perfect unity of the participants with each other and with the Lord, who is present in spirit.

"Recent findings indicate unusual emphasis placed on a perfect unity of the sexes in marriage ordinances which were real enough and secret enough to excite the scandalized speculations of outsiders80 and the fantastic imitation of the Gnostics.81

After all allowances have been made, there remains a definite residue of early Christian ritual that goes far beyond anything known to later Christianity, which admittedly got its liturgy from the synagogue and the Hellenistic world, while the rites just mentioned all look to the temple and belong to the instructions of the 40 days.82

The teachings swirling around the mysteries of the 40-day ministry appear linked to the temple and to sacred covenants and rites. This is consistent with the LDS view that there is more the Lord has revealed for us than we have in public writings.

Sabbath Connections

As Elder Dallin H. Oaks has eloquently pointed out in his April 1985 General Conference sermon, "Taking Upon Us the Name of Jesus Christ," the sacrament prayer's statement about being willing to take the name of Christ implies that it is not fully taken upon us by baptism alone. That prayer points us to the place where we more fully taken the name of Christ upon us and more fully take up His yoke.

It is in the temple where we take upon us the authority/name of Jesus Christ. I would likewise suggest that temple teachings and covenants more fully bind us to the Lord as the yoke joins the ox to its master.

Appropriately, the Kirtland Temple had sacrament tables in the shape of a yoke for oxen. The yoke of oxen perhaps should be one of the concepts we think about as we approach the baptismal font in the Temple, which in early temples at least was born on the backs of oxen.

Baptismal covenants, renewed weekly at the sacrament table, are covenants to take the name of Christ upon us, which is more than just acknowledging His name. It is committing ourselves to follow Him. Taking His name upon us is taking His yoke upon us.

We may also wish to ponder the symbol of the yoke and the duty to carry a burden for the Lord as we look at the baptismal font in typical LDS temples, resting squarely on the backs of oxen. Baptism, the sacrament, burdens on the backs of oxen, and sacred temple covenants all may be connected.

The Sabbath, of course, is the day of rest. In Matthew 11, when Christ implores us to come unto Him and take up His yoke, He offers a specific blessing: rest. This might seem like an odd promise to link with a symbol of labor and servitude.

What is the rest that Christ promises? Doctrine and Covenants 84:24 explains that the Lord's rest is the "fullness of his glory" and is associated with coming into the presence of God. Entry into the presence of God is ultimately the very thing the temple is designed to help provide for man.

The temple is a house of to prepare us to enter into God's presence and enjoy His fullness. It is a house of rest, of the rest that God provides for His sons and daughters who come unto Him.

The temple as sacred space is a place of rest linked to the day of rest. It is to space as the Sabbath is to time. As Rabbi Abraham Heschel put it, "The seventh day is like a palace in time with a kingdom for all" (The Sabbath: Its Meaning for Modern Man, (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1951), p. 21, as cited by Levenson, Sinai and Zion, 1985). See also Heschel's article, "Shabbat as a Sanctuary in Time."

As Elder Oaks explained, the covenants renewed at the sacrament table on the day of rest are most fully made in the temple, where we take the name of Christ upon us most fully and prepare to enter into His rest.

Should not His yoke must fully be understood to include temple covenants? Is that not how we take His name most fully upon us, and prepare to enter into that rest?

Anointing

Among the concepts mentioned by Nibley above is anointing. To me, this ancient rite, originally used in Old Testament times as a symbol of giving authority to priests and kings, has parallels to taking on the yoke of Christ. It is also linked to the temple.

In the Gate of Heaven, Matthew Brown writes

Around 350 A.D., Cyril of Jerusalem equated the anointing ceremony that was administered under his direction (of the forehead, ears, nose, and chest) with the “unction” or “anointing” that is spoken of in 1 John 2:20, 27.69 Basil the Great referred to the early Christian anointing ritual as one of the secret teachings “delivered to us ‘in a mystery’ by the traditions of the apostles.”

What did this anointing ceremony consist of? Several historical sources say that the early Saints were anointed on the forehead, ears, nose, eyes, mouth, and chest, and a formula of words was pronounced as the body parts were anointed. Most sources, however, simply say that the Christian’s entire body was anointed with holy oil.

Some ritual texts indicate that the anointing oil was applied to the initiate’s head as a type of “seal,” and then the seal was confirmed upon the initiate in the name of the three members of the Godhead. Around 200 A.D. Tertullian wrote that the anointing ritual was administered to Christ’s disciples so that they themselves could become “christs,” or anointed ones, like their Master. [footnotes omitted]

In one of the footnotes for that passage, Brown also notes that Cyril of Jerusalem said that through this anointing, all Christians “were made Christs.”

Is taking on the gifts and responsibilities of the anointing part of fully taking on the yoke of Christ, part of the path in truly coming unto Him? Surely it is a symbol of taking on us the name of Christ and His authority, as well as his teachings. It is a symbol not wholly unrelated to the yoke, recognizing, for example, that the role of the anointed priest or king is ultimately to be a servant and to carry a burden for the Lord.

Now that we have mentioned the links between the yoke, the temple, and anointing, Latter-day Saints might get excited to see Isaiah 10:27, which speaks of the yoke of captivity being "destroyed because of the anointing," but this may be a translation problem in the KJV.

The Hebrew word translated as anointing actually refers to fatness, and it is generally understood now to suggest the image of the fat, healthy neck of the ox swelling to break the yoke.

The connection from fat or oil to anointing is not an impossible leap, but modern translations like the New English Bible do not use "anointing" and see it as unjustified here. Nevertheless, the connection between anointing and temple themes in Exhortations to the Heathen by Clement of Alexandria is worth re-reading:

Come to Me…. For I want, I want to impart to you this grace, bestowing on you the perfect boon of immortality; and I confer on you both the Word and the knowledge of God, My complete self. This am I, this God wills, …. I desire to restore you according to the original model, that ye may become also like Me.

I anoint you with the ungent of faith, by which you throw off corruption, and show you the naked form of righteousness by which you ascend to God. Come to Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest to your souls. For My yoke is easy, and My burden light.”

Let us haste, let us run, my fellow-men — us, who are God-loving and God-like images of the Word. Let us haste, let us run, let us take His yoke, let us receive, to conduct us to immortality, the good charioteer of men. Let us love Christ. He led the colt with its parent; and having yoked the team of humanity to God, directs His chariot to immortality, …

It is time, then, for us to say that the pious Christian alone is rich and wise, and of noble birth, and thus call and believe him to be God’s image, and also His likeness, having become righteous and holy and wise by Jesus Christ, and so far already like God.

Accordingly this grace is indicated by the prophet, when he says, “I said that ye are gods, and all sons of the Highest.” For us, yea us, He has adopted, and wishes to be called the Father of us alone, not of the unbelieving. Such is then our position who are the attendants of Christ.

Summary

Covenants binding man and God are a vital part of our ancient religious roots and a critical part of the Restoration and the modern LDS temple. Making and renewing covenants can involve many symbolic objects such as the phylacteries worn by ancient Jews, or priestly robes and many other elements of clothing used in priestly roles, coronation ceremonies, or other rites.

It can also involve actions with physical materials such as washing with water and anointing with oil, as found in the Old Testament and in some other ancient traditions.

The donning of sacred clothing can be considered a symbol of taking the yoke of covenants upon us. Indeed, the pallium, a piece of woolen cloth worn about the neck of a pope, can be viewed as a symbol of bearing the yoke of Christ.

The robes and the garment of the LDS temple can also be linked symbolically to the yoke of Christ. To Saints making covenants to come unto Christ, that too can be part of His yoke, or a symbol thereof.

The covenants we make to follow Christ and take His name upon us and accept His teachings, including baptism and the covenants and teachings of the temple, can be considered as part of Christ's yoke. The burden we take up is light, and though it is a burden and does demand commitment and endurance from us, that work of course is incapable of saving us.

It cannot resurrect us. It cannot wash away our sins. It cannot bring us into the presence of the Father. All this comes through His grace. Thus, it is a yoke of grace. Indeed, the "yoke of His grace" is the term used in another of the earliest of Christian document, First Clement, written by Clement of Rome.

A yoke that involves obedience and service, but brings us to receive the full riches of His grace, and that includes realizing our divine potential in a sacred covenant relationship with God, as the later early Christian, Clement of Alexandria, taught, and as many other early Christians understood.

The LDS temple truly is a place of grace rooted in great antiquity, a place where we can more fully come unto Christ and take His full yoke upon us.

For more from Jeff Lindsay, see Mormanity at http://mormanity.blogspot.com and his Mormon Answers section at http://jefflindsay.com/LDSFAQ/.


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About Jeff Lindsay

Jeff Lindsay has been defending the Church on the Internet since 1994, when he launched his LDSFAQ website under JeffLindsay.com. He has also long been blogging about LDS matters on the blog Mormanity (mormanity.blogspot.com). Jeff is a longtime resident of Appleton, Wisconsin, who recently moved to Shanghai, China, with his wife, Kendra. He works for an Asian corporation as head of intellectual property. Jeff and Kendra are the parents of 4 boys, 3 married and the the youngest on a mission.

He is a former innovation and IP consultant, a former professor, and former Corporate Patent Strategist and Senior Research Fellow for a multinational corporation.

Jeff Lindsay, Cheryl Perkins and Mukund Karanjikar are authors of the book Conquering Innovation Fatigue (John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

Jeff has a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Brigham Young University and is a registered US patent agent. He has more than 100 granted US patents and is author of numerous publications. Jeff's hobbies include photography, amateur magic, writing, and Mandarin Chinese.

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